Composting is the breakdown of organic materials, such as food waste, vegetable scraps, leaves, and plants, to a nutrient-rich soil ideal for gardening. Worm farms or composting worms, or what we call “little helpers”, speed up the process of composting. This process of adding worms in composting is referred to as vermicomposting.
Don’t confuse yourself with compost worms and garden earthworms; they are totally different. Compost worms prefer to stay in the surface area with a damp environment, and they prefer to eat raw materials. Meanwhile, earthworms want to burrow themselves to the bottom of the soil, preventing them to gain access to raw materials on the surface area. This calls for the need to mix the compost in order to introduce them to a new raw material.
So, are worms in compost good or bad? Mostly, these composts worms are considered to be a gardener’s friend, and here are the reasons why.
The end product of decomposition from earthworms is 100% organic. No chemicals were used to speed up the composting process.
Introduction of Microorganisms
As the farm worms pass through the compost, microorganisms such as bacteria and other microbes are introduced into the soil making it resilient to diseases and pests in the garden. Microbes in the soil attract birds which help eliminate pests lurking in the garden.
Gardeners noticed improved growth and a better production because of vermicomposting. It is believed that the earthworms release hormones which make the plant healthier and yield good root growth.
The nutrients brought about by vermicomposting are raw which makes it easily absorbed by the roots. Due to worm mucus in the compost, vermicomposts are not easily flushed away, thus allowing plants to gain maximum nutrients from the soil at an extended span of time.
Retention of Water
Vermicomposts can retain more water than ordinary composts. This is beneficial especially in times of drought. While water from normal composts evaporates easily, water from vermicomposts evaporates at a slower rate, thus making it more accessible to plants.
Farm worms are excellent free helpers in the composting process. They not only decompose food wastes and organic materials, but they also mix the compost at the same time.
Here are also some of the reasons why these worms pose as a threat to gardening:
Approximately, it takes half a year for these worms to decompose the raw materials to make a healthy compost while an ordinary compost can just take three months with constant mixing.
The University of Nebraska warns that vermicomposts usually has an earthy smell on its soil. There is also a great tendency that the smell will become too awful if there are certain factors such as too much food wastes, ventilation problems, or too much water in the compost.
It is more expensive to set up vermicompost than a usual natural compost. It requires special materials like containers and lime to neutralize the acidity level of the compost. There are also instances wherein you have to buy special worms if the need arises.
Taking care of the worms is a much more tedious job than you think. Here are some things that need to be done:
Do not overfeed
Compost worms get overwhelmed easily. You should not put every organic waste you see in your kitchen, for the worms will not be able to keep up with it. Plus, we also don’t want a smelly garden after all. There is a theory that worms can eat with their weight in a day but a number of factors will still come into play, so there is a tendency that they may eat less than they should. Don’t feed your worms too much, it should be 2-3 days again depending on how much they can handle. Every feeding should be gone by 1-2 weeks depending on your worms and a lot of other factors involved.
Moisture of Bedding
Worms need enough moisture for them to endure. If you put too much water, then they may drown and your pit will have an awry smell to it. If you make it very dry, then the worms are likely to die. To test if there is enough moisture on your soil, squeeze a handful of it, if water leaks out, there is too much water.
Ideally, worms prefer to eat less acidic food and vegetable leftovers in a smaller size. Cabbages take a lengthy amount of time to decompose. Salty, spicy, and processed foods can also spoil the bed emitting a foul smell to your compost. Avoid tomatoes, yogurt, and oily foods for they spoil faster. You can add coffee, tea, and even eggshells as they are preferred for the worms. Bear in mind to cut the food into smaller parts for it to break down at speed.
Worm castings should be separated from the worms when harvesting the compost to leave beds for the worms to live. Tray-based bins may take only 10 minutes while the screen should take approximately 30 minutes to an hour while mounds usually take a day to prepare.
According to an academic journal published last 2001 titled “Bioresource Technology”, in natural compost, heat is emitted during the process of decomposition, thus making the environment impossible for weed and pathogens to foster. But in vermicompost, worms need enough moisture for them to survive. Thus, the soil from the vermicompost may still harbor pathogens and weeds which will become detrimental to the plants in the long run.
Worms in composts have proved their valuable effect in composting. Although it has also its flaws, it is really up to the gardener’s decision whether he will make these worms as his allies or consider it as something bad in his gardening. How about you? Would you try vermicomposting? Or would you prefer the less-hassle way of composting? DO share your thoughts.